Acetic Acid – $20
The primary acid that contributes to volatile acidity.
Ethanol is a critical constituent of wine and is produced from sugar during fermentation. It is the primary alcohol found in wine. (Requires an additional 100mL of sample).
Ammonia refers to one of the two prominent forms of nitrogen (along with NOPA) in grapes that serve as yeast nutrients. The determination of ammonia is commonly measured along with NOPA to determine YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen).
Arsenic is a known carcinogen. Inorganic forms are primarily associated with long-term negative health effects, while the organic forms are less toxic. Determination of total arsenic content does not provide a complete picture of the risks associated with arsenic intake. Please allow 2-3 days for results.
A measurement of the concentration of dissolved solids in a solution. It is equivalent to the amount of sugar in solution, where 1 degree Brix equals 1 gram of sucrose per 100 mL of liquid at a given temperature. Measured by refractometer.
Found naturally in soil, grapevines use calcium as a nutrient. High concentrations can result in calcium tartrate instability in wine. Please allow 2-3 days for results.
Catechins react with tannins to make the primary flavor component in red wine. They are the main source of astringent and bitter sensation.
Small quantities of citric acid naturally present in the grapes is consumed by bacteria during fermentation and converted into diacetyl. Citric acid testing is performed to meet regulatory or export requirements.
The measurement of absorbance is used to determine the amount of color that is found in wine. 420 nm is used to determine the amount of yellow, whereas 520 nm determines the amount of red.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) describes the amount of free molecular oxygen (O2) dissolved in solution. Managing wine’s exposure to oxygen is crucial to crafting a fine tasting product.
Maintaining the proper amount of sulfites in a wine protects it from oxidation and microbial contamination during aging/storage. Free SO2 is available to react with and effectively neutralize both oxidation and microbial spoilage threats.
Glucose + Fructose
Measurement of the combined concentrations of the primary two sugars that are consumed by yeast during fermentation. In grapes, this value can provide an estimate of final ethanol (alcohol) concentration. Also known as residual sugar after primary fermentation.
Biogenic amines, including histamine, are primarily produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Wines that exhibit significant spoilage may have a higher concentration of histamine. Please allow 2-3 days for results.
Unstable iron forms a white deposit (iron phosphate) in white wine, and can cause a blue-black deposit in red wine. Please allow 2-3 days for results.
Lactic acid is an organic acid that contributes to the overall acidity of wine.
Malic acid is one of the primary contributors of acidity in the grape. The concentration is an important component of the calculations necessary to make acid adjustments to must. Also useful for monitoring malolactic fermentation during which malic acid is converted enzymatically by bacteria to lactic acid.
NOPA (alpha amino compound)
NOPA refers to one of the two prominent forms of nitrogen (along with NH3) in grapes that serve as yeast nutrients. The determination of NOPA is commonly measured along with NH3 to determine YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen).
The pH affects color, aroma, flavor, tartrate precipitation, CO2 absorption, malolactic fermentation, ageability, fermentation rate and stability. (Requires an additional 100mL of sample).
Commonly used to adjust the acid balance of must and wine. It is the most prevalent organic acid found naturally in grapes.
A measurement of all free acids in solution; used to judge maturity.
The sum of titratable acids and volatile acids.
A measure of both the free and bound forms of SO2. Bound SO2 refers to SO2 molecules that are bonded to other compounds, primarily aldehydes, pyruvate, and anthocyanins. Sulphur dioxide is used throughout all stages of the winemaking process to prevent oxidation and microbial growth. Excessive amounts of SO2 can inhibit fermentation and cause undesirable sensory effects.
Total Soluble Solids (TSS)
A measurement of the concentration of dissolved solids in a solution. It is equivalent to the amount of sugar in solution, where 1 degree Brix equals 1 gram of sucrose per 100 mL of liquid at a given temperature. Measured by hydrometer. (Requires an additional 100mL of sample).
Volatile acids, primarily acetic acid, are produced through microbial action such as yeast fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and other fermentations carried out by spoilage organisms. Presence of volatile acids is a sign of spoilage. This test is most useful for determining a baseline VA level and monitoring for any increases, which could indicate the presence of a spoilage organism.
YAN (yeast assimilable nitrogen)
The measurement of yeast assimilable nitrogen is used to determine the amount of two most prominent forms of nitrogen in grapes that serve as yeast nutrients. These components are primary amino nitrogen (NOPA) and ammonia (NH3); the YAN measurement is the sum of NOPA and NH3.
Please contact us to discuss your individual needs. In addition to wine testing we offer beer, water, plant and soil analysis. We are here to serve you!
Tests include pH, Brix, titratable acidity, free SO2, total SO2.
Tests include pH, Brix, glucose + fructose, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, YAN.
Post Fermentation Panel
Tests include pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, free SO2, total SO2, dissolved oxygen (allow 2-3 days for results).
Final Analysis Panel
Tests include pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, free SO2, total SO2, glucose + fructose.
Tests include pH, Brix, malic acid, titratable acidity, ammonia, NOPA.
A routine set of analyses for monitoring your wine from fermentation through bottling. Tests include pH, alcohol, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, malic acid, glucose + fructose, free SO2 and total SO2.
We can work with you to create a customized panel that meets your needs. Please contact us!